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  • May 17, 2017
    In a large study of individuals aged ≥55 years, hip and knee osteoarthritis was the greatest contributor to difficulty walking, and the effect increased with more hips and knees affected by osteoarthritis.In the study with 18,490 participants, the predicted probability of difficulty walking for a 60-year-old middle-income, normal-weight woman was 5-10% with no health conditions; 10-20% with diabetes and cardiovascular disease; 40% with osteoarthritis in two hips/knees; 60-70% with diabetes,...
  • May 17, 2017
    A new study found that group-based quality improvement sessions help rheumatologists care for rheumatoid arthritis patients with the recommended “treat to target” (TTT) approach to care. This approach involves setting a target for treatment, measuring progress towards achieving the target regularly, altering treatments until reaching and maintaining target, and sharing the decisions with patients.The randomized study, which is published in Arthritis & Rheumatology, included 320...
  • May 17, 2017
    A new study in retired athletes takes the first steps in developing an objective tool for diagnosing a history of sports concussions.Investigators note that sports-related concussions lead to persistent anomalies of the brain structure and function that interact with the effects of normal ageing. Their newly developed tool—which combines markers from cognitive, genetic, white matter, and grey matter assessments of the brain—could be used by clinicians to rule out a history of mild head traumas...
  • May 17, 2017
    Researchers have developed a test that can rapidly and reliably diagnose sepsis, a potentially life-threatening complication of bacterial infections.Rapid diagnosis of sepsis in hospitalized patients is crucial because in severe cases, there is an average 7.6% decrease in survival rate per hour from the onset of low blood pressure without effective antimicrobial treatment. Early identification of a pathogen increases the chance of targeting the correct agent and may avoid misuse of antibiotics...
  • May 17, 2017
    Being overweight or obese was linked with an increased likelihood of having poor oral health in a recent study.In the study of 160 participants, those with BMI ≥23 had generally more severe periodontitis, total inflammatory dental diseases, and leukocyte counts than normal weight individuals. Patients who were obese (BMI ≥25) had almost a 6-times increased risk for severe periodontitis compared with normal weight participants. Altered inflammatory molecules that are associated with obesity may...
  • May 17, 2017
    An analysis of data in Illinois has found a link between higher county-level use of an herbicide called glyphosate and reduced abundance of adult monarch butterflies, especially in areas with concentrated agriculture. This association was only evident during the initial years of the adoption of herbicide-resistant crops (1994-2003), however, when glyphosate use was increasing most quickly.Investigators also found that wetter and, to a lesser degree, cooler springs in Texas were...
  • May 17, 2017
    Over time, humans have contributed to the loss of native species and have introduced non-native species throughout Europe. A new analysis shows how European freshwater fish have changed profoundly since 1840. At the continental scale, the contemporary fauna holds net 11 more species today as exotic species introduction (26 species) exceeded native species loss (15 species). But the biggest change was made by European species introduced from one area in Europe to another (77 species), often...
  • May 16, 2017
    A new review notes that recent epidemiological and clinical studies have built a consensus that ginger has beneficial effects against obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and related disorders—more commonly referred to as metabolic syndrome.Ginger has these effects by regulating fat metabolism, suppressing carbohydrate digestion, modulating insulin secretion and response, inhibiting oxidative stress, and lowering blood pressure and cholesterol. Studies have also identified the...
  • May 16, 2017
    Wiley has partnered with the British Journal of Surgery society to launch an exciting new open access title, BJS Open. Like its sister title, British Journal of Surgery (BJS), BJS Open will publish high-quality work on all aspects of general surgery and related topics.If authors submit their paper to BJS, they may be given the opportunity to have their manuscript transferred to BJS Open. The BJS society is committed to providing increasing choice for authors who wish to publish their research...
  • May 15, 2017
    Poison frog tadpoles are dependent on parent for transportation, which helps them become separated from their cannibalistic siblings. A new study found that if all tadpoles hatch into the same pool and an adult frog enters it, tadpoles are highly attracted to the adult and try to mount it in order to escape their siblings—even if the frog does not show any willingness to conduct transportation behaviours. The Journal of Zoology findings may not only be useful for studies on the evolution of...