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  • September 20, 2017
    Fungal infections represent an increasing health crisis, especially for immune-deficient patients. American scientists now report in the journal Angewandte Chemie that specific help could be provided by small-molecule immunotherapeutics with novel mechanism of action. They developed small bifunctional molecules that simultaneously bind both chitin, a specific feature of the fungal cell wall and a molecule not found in humans, and naturally occurring human antibodies and redirect the human...
  • September 20, 2017
    In a study published in Epilepsia, young people taking anti-epileptic drugs experienced elevated rates of bone fractures and had reductions in tibial bone mineral density and lower limb muscle force.The study included 23 individuals aged 5-18 years who had been taking anti-epileptic drugs for at least 12 months. Each individual was matched to a twin, sibling, or first cousin.The findings suggest the need to further explore bone health issues in young patients taking anti-epileptic medications...
  • September 20, 2017
    The journal Andrologia has published the first report of abnormal sperm parameters in obese men based on computer aided sperm analysis. The findings suggest that clinicians may need to factor in paternal obesity prior to assisted reproduction.In the study of 1285 men, obesity was associated with lower volume of semen, sperm count, concentration, and motility, as well as greater sperm defects.“The health and reproductive performance of spermatozoa in obese men are more likely to be compromised...
  • September 20, 2017
    In a Pharmacology Research & Perspectives study, the asthma medication montelukast (trade name Singulair) was linked with neuropsychiatric reactions such as depression and aggression, with nightmares being especially frequent in children.For the study, investigators examined all adverse drug reactions on montelukast in children and adults reported to the Netherlands Pharmacovigilance Center Lareb and the WHO Global database, VigiBase®, until 2016.“Because of the high incidence of...
  • September 20, 2017
    Type 2 diabetes is associated with increased fracture risk despite normal or high bone mineral density. In a new study published in the Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, modest deficits in cortical bone—the dense outer surface of bone that forms a protective layer around the internal cavity—were demonstrated in older adults with type 2 diabetes compared with non-diabetics.Additional studies are needed to determine if addressing structural deterioration of cortical bone may reduce...
  • September 20, 2017
    A phase 1 clinical trial published in the British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology found that radavirsen—an antisense oligomer that inhibits the production of certain influenza proteins—is safe and well-tolerated in healthy individuals. Additional studies on radavirsen’s potential as a treatment for influenza are warrantedIn the 56-participant trial, pharmacokinetic analyses indicated that at 8mg/kg, radavirsen is expected to be effective in the treatment of influenza.“This is the first...
  • September 20, 2017
    In a study published in Arthritis & Rheumatology, trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in civilian women were strongly associated with increased risk of developing lupus, an autoimmune disease.In the study of 54,763 women, investigators found a nearly three-fold elevated risk of lupus among women with probable PTSD and more than two-fold higher risk of lupus among women who had experienced any traumatic event compared with women not exposed to trauma.The findings...
  • September 20, 2017
    New research indicates that fish may adapt their behaviour to defend against parasite infection. The findings are published in the Journal of Zoology.When investigators studied Atlantic salmon, clear differences in parasite load existed between behaviourally-modified fish and those able to exhibit the normal repertoire of behaviours. Normal salmon displayed greater frequencies of surface behaviours (jumping and rolling) and less swimming activity compared with behaviourally-impaired...
  • September 20, 2017
    A new Biological Reviews study provides a comprehensive assessment of how changes to wetlands affect animals, and the authors use their findings to provide recommendations for managing wetlands to maximise their biodiversity.For the study, researchers characterised how animals respond to four key drivers of wetland alteration: agriculture, mining, restoration, and urbanisation. Population and community-based measures within altered wetlands were largely comparable...
  • September 20, 2017
    How might the Brexit process affect the status of the English language within the European Union? Without Britain, will English even cease to be a language of the Union? A new article in World Englishes explores these questions.Dr. Marko Mondiano, author of the article, notes that one possibility is that the exit of Britain may give rise to a distinct variety of ‘Euro-English’ tailored to the cultures and needs of continental European societies.“The departure of the British from the...